DIAMOND ORIGIN AND GEOLOGICAL OCCURRENCE
A description of the rocks important to diamond formation including their composition and abundance. Diamond morphology and current information regarding the age of diamonds, the types of inclusions found in diamond and the methods for study of these inclusions. Recent findings on the process of diamond growth in the mantle, the formation of diamond pipes and diamond transport.
GEOGRAPHICAL OCCURRENCE OF DIAMOND AND DIAMOND-BEARING ROCKS
CRYSTALLOGRAPHY AND DIAMOND CRYSTALS
Diamond structure and particulars on carbon atoms, bonding and the unit cell of diamond. The isometric crystal system - the crystal system governing the formation of diamond - is explained along with the crystallographic axes and planes that allow the system to be measured, as well as the properties attributed to the system. Diamond forms and habit including complex and combination forms, and growth markings. Types and causes of irregular crystals, twin crystals and comments on features by which rough diamond may be identified.
INTRODUCTION TO MINING AND THE EXPLOITATION OF PRIMARY DEPOSITS
Summary of mining history, mining terminology, mining considerations, environmental issues, and mine development. An indepth account of the mining of primary deposits beginning with historical methods followed by the modern mining production cycle with detailed notes of the techniques for surface and underground mining complete with diagrams. Including: premining steps, infrastructure, machinery, yield, advantages and disadvantages.
FORMATION AND EXPLOITATION OF SECONDARY DEPOSITS
Synopsis of the depositional environments for secondary deposits formed by rivers, oceans and glaciers. A general discussion of exploration and use of these depositional models as a means to prospect for primary deposits. The mining methods of dry and wet river deposits, and coastal and offshore deposits.
DIAMOND PROCESSING AND RECOVERY
Methods of treating the ore to extract diamonds from waste. Examination of mineral processing technology from early primitive methods at alluvial diggings to the modern day high-tech operations of large-scale productions. Processing plant design factors, as well as methods of handling ore, waste, water and ancillary operations. Each of the three processing operations - liberation , concentration and recovery - are described in detail along with the machinery employed at each step, its efficiency and security concerns.
Comprehensive details of the physical and optical properties of diamond. Information is presented in three sections: the first explains the classification of diamond in Type I and Type II and their subdivisions; the second described properties that remain essentially the same for Type I and Type II diamond and the third details properties that are variable by Type. Definitions, measurement and significance of each property is given. Summary and quick reference tables are included.
The rarity, value and mystique of fancy colour diamonds explained from the perspective of the science of colour and human perception issues. The physical causes of diamond colour are explained generally and at the atomic level. Individual sections are dedicated to each fancy colour varity providing a photographic reference and colour-specific information. Fancy colour grading and colour treatment methods as well as treatment detection information are included.
The processes of designing, marking, cleaving, sawing, bruting and faceting diamond. Historical notes, the basics of grain, the application of automation and sections regarding the manufacturing of fancy shapes, fancy colour diamonds and large collection stones. Profiles on Gabi Tolkowski and William Goldberg. Manufacturing risks and realities and world industry facts.
INTRODUCTION TO DIAMOND GRADING AND CARAT WEIGHT
Introductions to past and present-day nomenclatures and the organizations behind these grading systems as well as laboratory procedure and grading ethics. An account of historical weight measurement and the metric carat. Methods for weighing loose diamonds, estimating the weight of mounted stones and calculating diamond weights by formula.
DIAMOND GRADING - CLARITY
The procedure for clarity grading with notes on the loupe, microscope, lighting conditions and accepted grading standards. The nature, description and effects of various internal and external features on clarity grade. Practical remarks on how to judge clarity factors relative to one another and arrive at an overall assessment as well as expert tips for final grading decisions. Charts and notes on the clarity nomenclatures including their comparative differences and definitions of the specific grades. Plotting diagrams and photomasters for each of the grades.
DIAMOND GRADING - COLOUR
Colour grading terminology from traditional to current internationally recognized nomenclature systems. The requirements for proper grading conditions and consistent grading including the procedure for grading with and without master stones. Colour grading tips. Notes on problematic stones, grading fancy cuts and mounted stones, judging colour in parcels, and the affects of fluorescence. A discussion on objective colour measurement.
DIAMOND GRADING - CUT
An explanation of proportion grading and finish grading factors for assessing round brilliant cuts and fancy cuts. The various nomenclatures in use worldwide. The measurement and estimatation of diamond proportions as it applies to independent graders. Foundations of labratory cut grade. Ideal cuts are presented with a summary of new cut research. Comments from theory and practical experience. Proportion measuring instruments and methods for determining recut weight.
THE DIAMOND MARKET
How diamonds are bought, sold and marketed via the diamond pipeline from mined rough through sights, dealers and on to polished diamond consumers. A narrative on the events and biographical information on key players tracing the founders and the origins of DeBeers through to its modern day existence including the evolution of the role of DeBeers in the marketplace, its structure and subsidiaries, its market control, government involvement and Supplier of Choice. The process for sorting rough for sights and the effects of market conditions on allocations. Discussion of industrial and gem quality rough, the unique world of New York's 47th Street, facts and realities about investment diamonds, the issue of conflict diamonds and diamond theft. World production of rough and rough diamonds sales figures are tabled.
Histories on famous and notable diamonds including those known for notoriety, scientific significance and historical and comtemporary interest. Including: Hope, Cullinan, Dresden Green, Regent, Excelsior, Great Mogul, Orlov, Koh-i-noor, Premier Rose, Incomparable, Centenary, Jonker, Sancy, Florentine, Jubilee, Eureka, Nizam, Millenium Star, Tiffany, Taylor-Burton, Deal Sweetener, Star of Sierra Leone, Niacharos, Woyie River, Agra, Star of the South, President Vargas, Lesotho, Darya-i-nur, Williamson, Brunswick Blue, DeBeers and Weekend Diamonds, as well as 38 others and the collections of Cardinal Jules Mazarin and Robert Mouawad. Tables of the world's largest rough and polished gem-quality diamonds.
Complete accounts of identificiation techniques for the novice and expert alike including observations that can be made with the naked eye and various degrees of magnification such as lustre, brilliance and fire, wear and hardness, cut quality, naturals, cleavages, and so on; those requiring no specialized equipment such as cool touch, breath test, total internal reflection, read through, tilt test, and so on; and those requiring standard gemmological equipment such as immersion techniques, X-ray transparency, fluorescence, specific gravity, reflectivity, refractive index, polariscope, thermal conductivity, electroconductivity, and spectra. Special attention is placed on the newest developements in the field including those with instrumentation such as the Brewster Angle Meter and various "testers", as well as purely visual techniques such as Visual Optics. Attention is placed on explaining the basics and theory of the instruments as well as outlining exceptions and cautions relating to each.
Comprehensive information on diamond simulants on the basis of both: separation from diamond and identification of the simulant itself. The properties and identification criteria for historical and current man-made and natural simulants including: crystal system, chemical composition, colour, cleavage, fracture, hardness, lustre, refractive index, optical character, optic sign, spectrum, luminescence, dispersion, diaphaneity, specific gravity, birefringence, electroconductivity, X-ray transparency and the advantages and disadvantages of the simulant. Basic information on the identificaiton of composite stones and coloured diamond simulants. Easy reference tables.
Detailed information on three highly successful and prevalent treatments known in the trade as: fracture filling, laser drilling and high pressure/high temperature (HPHT) annealing. Including their processes, developements, misconceptions, detection and market realities. Ethics and disclosure are addressed. Guidelines for grading are presented.
Historical research on the problem of synthesis and modern day methods of high-pressure synthetic diamond production. Notes on temperatures, pressures, the carbon phase diagram and the experimetal apparatuses as well as biographic information on key players in the field. Synthetic diamond Types, the effects of controlling growth conditions and detailed information on factors for the separation of natural and synthetic diamonds. The significance of synthesis as it relates to crystallographic knowledge, colour, natural formation conditions, technology and industrial applications. Alternate methods of synthesis including chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and its early experiements as well as present day commercial processes and industry uses. As well as notes on low-pressure ion implantaion, direct synthesis by shockwave, synthesis from a polymer and the direct synthesis of fullerines.